LGBTQ

LGBTQ Support and Resources Tom Franco MSW,LCSW

Improving the health, safety, and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals is of paramount importance to mef as a therapist.

Overview

LGBT individuals encompass all races and ethnicities, religions, and social classes. Sexual orientation and gender identity questions are not asked on most national or State surveys, making it difficult to estimate the number of LGBT individuals and their health needs.

My goal is to help you conquer some of what research suggests that LGBT individuals face health disparities linked to societal stigma, discrimination, and denial of their civil and human rights. Discrimination against LGBT persons has been associated with high rates of psychiatric disorders,1 substance abuse,2, 3 and suicide.4 Experiences of violence and victimization are frequent for LGBT individuals, and have long-lasting effects on the individual and the community.5 Personal, family, and social acceptance of sexual orientation and gender identity affects the mental health and personal safety of LGBT individuals.6

The LGBT companion document to Healthy People 20107 highlighted the need for more research to document, understand, and address the environmental factors that contribute to health disparities in the LGBT community.

Why Is LGBT Health Important?

Eliminating LGBT health disparities and enhancing efforts to improve LGBT health are necessary to ensure that LGBT individuals can lead long, healthy lives. The many benefits of addressing health concerns and reducing disparities include:

                     Reductions in disease transmission and progression

                     Increased mental and physical well-being

                     Reduced health care costs

                     Increased longevity

Efforts to improve LGBT health include:

                     Collecting SOGI data in health-related surveys and health records in order to identify LGBT health disparaties8

                     Appropriately inquiring about and being supportive of a patient's sexual orientation and gender identity to enhance the patient-provider interaction and regular use of care9

                     Providing medical students with training to increase provision of culturally competent care10

                     Implementing antibullying policies in schools11

                     Providing supportive social services to reduce suicide and homelessness among youth11

                     Curbing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with interventions that work12

Related Topic Areas

Access to Health Services

Adolescent Health

Cancer

Early and Middle Childhood

Educational and Community-Based Programs

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Understanding LGBT Health

Understanding LGBT health starts with understanding the history of oppression and discrimination that these communities have faced. For example, in part because bars and clubs were often the only safe places where LGBT individuals could gather, alcohol abuse has been an ongoing problem.14

Social determinants affecting the health of LGBT individuals largely relate to oppression and discrimination. Examples include:

                     Legal discrimination in access to health insurance, employment, housing, marriage, adoption, and retirement benefits

                     Lack of laws protecting against bullying in schools

                     Lack of social programs targeted to and/or appropriate for LGBT youth, adults, and elders

                     Shortage of health care providers who are knowledgeable and culturally competent in LGBT health

The physical environment that contributes to healthy LGBT individuals includes:

                     Safe schools, neighborhoods, and housing

                     Access to recreational facilities and activities

                     Availability of safe meeting places

                     Access to health services

LGBT health requires specific attention from health care and public health professionals to address a number of disparities, including:

                     LGBT youth are 2 to 3 times more likely to attempt suicide.15

                     LGBT youth are more likely to be homeless.16, 17, 18

                     Lesbians are less likely to get preventive services for cancer.19, 20

                     Gay men are at higher risk of HIV and other STDs, especially among communities of color.21

                     Lesbians and bisexual females are more likely to be overweight or obese.22

                     Transgender individuals have a high prevalence of HIV/STDs,23 victimization,24 mental health issues,25 and suicide26 and are less likely to have health insurance than heterosexual or LGB individuals.27

                     Elderly LGBT individuals face additional barriers to health because of isolation and a lack of social services and culturally competent providers.28

                     Continuing Issues in LGBT Health

A number of issues will need to continue to be evaluated and assessed over the coming decade, including:

                     Nationally representative data on LGBT Americans

                     Prevention of violence and homicide toward the LGB community, and especially the transgender population

                     Resiliency in LGBT communities

                     LGBT parenting issues throughout the life course

                     Elder health and well-being

                     Exploration of sexual/gender identity among youth

                     Need for a LGBT wellness model

                     Recognition of transgender health needs as medically necessary

Learn More

Presidential Memorandum: Respecting the Rights of Hospital Patients to Receive Visitors and to Designate Surrogate Decision Makers for Medical Emergencies

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services: Final Rule on Changes to Hospital Conditions of Participation to Ensure Visitation Rights for All Patients

HealthCare.gov: Health Care Coverage Options for Same Sex Couples

www.stopbullying.gov

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Health and Well-Being for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Americans

More

 

 

References

1McLaughlin KA, Hatzenbuehler ML, Keyes KM. Responses to discrimination and psychiatric disorders among black, Hispanic, female, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(8):1477-84.

2Ibanez GE, Purcell DW, Stall R, et al. Sexual risk, substance use, and psychological distress in HIV-positive gay and bisexual men who also inject drugs. AIDS. 2005;19(suppl 1):49-55.

3Herek GM, Garnets LD. Sexual orientation and mental health. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2007;3:353-75.

4Remafedi G, French S, Story M, et al. The relationship between suicide risk and sexual orientation: Results of a population-based study. Am J Public Health. 1998;88(1):57-60.

5Roberts AL, Austin SB, Corliss HL, et al. Pervasive trauma exposure among US sexual orientation minority adults and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Public Health. 2010 Apr 15.

6US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010. [Internet]. Available from: http://www.hhs.gov

7Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GMLA). Healthy People 2010: A companion document for LGBT health [Internet]. San Francisco: GMLA; 2001 Apr. Available from: http://www.glma.org/_data/n_0001/resources/live/HealthyCompanionDoc3.pdf [PDF =- 2.3 MB]

8Cahill SR, Baker K, Deutsch MB, etal. Inclusion of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Stage 3 Meaningful Use Guidelines: A Huge Step Forward for LGBT Health. LGBT Health. 2015; 0(0):1-3.

9Steele LS, Tinmouth JM, Lu A. Regular health care use by lesbians: A path analysis of predictive factors. Fam Pract. 2006;23:631-6.

10Sanchez NF, Rabatin J, Sanchez JP, et al. Medical students’ ability to care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered patients. Med Stud Edu. 2006;38(1):21-7.

11Suicide Prevention Resource Center. Suicide risk and prevention for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc.; 2009. Available from: http://www.sprc.org/library/SPRC_LGBT_Youth.pdf[PDF - 418 KB]

12Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Compendium of HIV prevention interventions with evidence of effectiveness [Internet]. Atlanta: CDC; 2007. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/reports/hiv_compendium/index.htm

13Ponce NA, Cochran SD, Pizer JC, et al. The effects of unequal access to health insurance for same-sex couples in California. Health Affairs. 2010;29(8):1-10.

<p><a id="thirteen" class="ref-number">13</a>Smith DM, Matthews WC. Physicians’ attitudes toward homosexuality and HIV: Survey of a California medical society—revisited (PATHH-II). J Homo. 2007;52(3/4):1-9.</p>

14Bux DA. The epidemiology of problem drinking in gay men and lesbians: A critical review. Clin Psych Rev. 1996;16:277-98.

15Garofalo R, Wolf RC, Wissow LS, et al. Sexual orientation and risk of suicide attempts among a representative sample of youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153(5):487-93.

16Conron KJ, Mimiaga MJ, Landers SJ. A population-based study of sexual orientation identity and gender differences in adult health. Am J Public Health. 2010 Oct;100(10):1953-60.

17Kruks, G. Gay and lesbian homeless/street youth: Special issues and concerns. J Adolesc Health. 2010;12(7):515-8.

18Van Leeuwen JM, Boyle S, Salomonsen-Sautel S, et al. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual homeless youth: An eight-city public health perspective. Child Welfare. 2006 Mar–Apr;85(2):151-70.

19Buchmueller T, Carpenter CS. Disparities in health insurance coverage, access, and outcomes for individuals in same-sex versus different-sex relationships, 2000–2007. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(3):489-95.

20Dilley JA, Simmons KW, Boysun MJ, et al. Demonstrating the importance and feasibility of including sexual orientation in public health surveys: Health disparities in the Pacific Northwest. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(3):460-7.

21Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (CDC) HIV among gay and bisexual men. Atlanta: CDC; 2014 Sept. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/gender/msm/

22Struble CB, Lindley LL, Montgomery K, et al. Overweight and obesity in lesbian and bisexual college women. J Am College Health. 2010;59(1):51-6.

23Herbst JH, Jacobs ED, Finlayson TJ, et al. Estimating HIV prevalence and risk behaviors of transgender persons in the United States: A systematic review. AIDS Behav. 2008;(12):1-17.

24Whitbeck LB, Chen X, Hoyt DR, et al. Mental disorder, subsistence strategies, and victimization among gay, lesbian, and bisexual homeless and runaway adolescents. J Sex Research. 2004;41(4):329-42.

25Diaz RM, Ayala G, Bein E, et al. The impact of homophobia, poverty, and racism on the mental health of gay and bisexual Latino men: Findings from three US cities. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(6):141-6.

26Kenagy GP. Transgender health: Findings from two needs assessment studies in Philadelphia. Health Soc Work. 2005;30(1):19-26.

27National Gay and Lesbian Taskforce. National transgender discrimination survey: Preliminary findings. Washington, DC: National Gay and Lesbian Taskforce; 2009 Nov. Available from: http://www.thetaskforce.org/downloads/reports/fact_sheets/transsurvey_prelim_findings.pdf [PDF - 1.17 MB]

28Cahill S, South K, Spade J. Outing age: Public policy issues affecting gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender elders. Washington: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force; 2009 Nov.

29Lee GL, Griffin GK, Melvin CL. Tobacco use among sexual minorities in the USA: 1987 to May 2007: A systematic review. Tob Control. 2009;18:275-82.

30Xavier J, Honnold J, Bradford J. The health, health-related needs, and lifecourse experiences of transgender Virginians. Virginia HIV Community Planning Committee and Virginia Department of Health. Richmond, VA: Virginia Department of Health; 2007. Available from: http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/epidemiology/DiseasePrevention/documents/pdf/THISFINALREPORTVol1.pdf [PDF - 646 KB]

31Hughes TL. Chapter 9: Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among lesbians and gay men. Ann Rev of Nurs Res. 2005;23:283-325.

32Lyons T, Chandra G, Goldstein J. Stimulant use and HIV risk behavior: The influence of peer support. AIDS Ed and Prev. 2006;18(5):461-73.

33Mansergh G, Colfax GN, Marks G, et al. The circuit party men's health survey: Findings and implications for gay and bisexual men. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(6):953-8. 

 

 

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